• Clark, Andy, and Chalmers, David. 1998. “The Extended Mind”. Analysis 58 (1): 7-19.

  • Clynes, Manfred E., and Kline, Nathan S. 1960. “Cyborgs And Space”. Astronautics (September): 26-27, 74-76.
    Abstract: Cyborgs and Space
    Tags: clynes, cybernetics, kline, Uncategorizable-Uncategorizable.

  • Cohen-Levinas, Danielle. 2006. La Voix Au-Delà Du Chant : Une Fenêtre Aux Ombres. Nouvelle éd. recomposée et augmentée. Paris: Librairie Philosophique Vrin.
  • Colombetti, Giovanna. 2017. “Enactive Affectivity, Extended”. Topoi 36 (3): 445–455.

  • Colombetti, Giovanna. 2014. The Feeling Body – Affective Science Meets The Enactive Mind. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

  • DeLancey, Craig. 2014. “Review Of <i>the Feeling Body: Affective Science Meets The Enactive Mind</i>” (September 16).
  • Colombetti, Giovanna, and Torrance, Steve. 2009. “Emotion And Ethics: An Inter-(En)Active Approach”. Phenomenology And The Cognitive Sciences 8 (4): 505–526.

  • Couchot, Edmond, and Hillaire, Norbert. 2005. L'art Numérique. Paris: Flammarion.

  • Cros, Charles. 2006. Le Caillou Mort D'amour. Toulouse: Ombres.
  • Cros, Charles. 1908. Le Collier De Griffes. Paris: Stock.

  • De Jaegher, Hanne, and Di Paolo, Ezequiel. 2007. “Participatory Sense-Making”. Phenomenology And The Cognitive Sciences 6 (4) (December 1): 485-507. doi:10.1007/s11097-007-9076-9.
    Abstract: As yet, there is no enactive account of social cognition. This paper extends the enactive concept of sense-making into the social domain. It takes as its departure point the process of interaction between individuals in a social encounter. It is a well-established finding that individuals can and generally do coordinate their movements and utterances in such situations. We argue that the interaction process can take on a form of autonomy. This allows us to reframe the problem of social cognition as that of how meaning is generated and transformed in the interplay between the unfolding interaction process and the individuals engaged in it. The notion of sense-making in this realm becomes participatory sense-making. The onus of social understanding thus moves away from strictly the individual only.
  • de Vries, Hent. 2001. “Of Miracles And Special Effects”. International Journal For The Philosophy Of Religion 50 (1-3) (December): 41-56.

  • Declerck, Gunnar. 2018. “Absent Aspects, Possible Perceptions And Open Intersubjectivity: A Critical Analysis Of Dan Zahavi’S Account Of Horizontal Intentionality”. Journal Of The British Society For Phenomenology (April 16): 1-21. doi:10.1080/00071773.2018.1463638.
    Abstract: The aim of this narrow-focused text is to argue against the claim that the appresentation of unperceived features of objects that is implied in perceptual intentionality presupposes a reference to perceptions other subjects could have of these objects. This claim, as it has been defended by Dan Zahavi, rests upon an erroneous supposition about the modal status of the perceptual possibilities to which the perceived object refers, which shall not be interpreted as effectively realizable but as mere de jure possibilities, perceptions that could have been realized in principle, but that are maybe beyond one’s reach considering one’s concrete factual powers and opportunities. Horizontal intentionality is better accounted for in terms of perceptions that one could have had because of one’s embodied character and the always open possibility of occupying another position with respect to the object. This modal ubiquity which is inherent to one’s being-in-space is what supports the field of de jure possibilities that is implied in horizontal intentionality. The co-presence of the parts and features one does not perceive from here is a counterpoint to one’s being-possibly-there. -------------------------------------------------------- Get a free e-print at:
    Attachment Full Text PDF 258.1 kb (source)

  • Declerck, Gunnar, and Lenay, Charles. 2018. “Living In Space. A Phenomenological Account”. In Mobility Of Visually Impaired People: Fundamentals And Ict Assistive Technologies, eds. Edwige Pissaloux and Ramiro Velazquez, 3-52. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
    Abstract: The aim of this chapter is to highlight the main phenomenological features of lived space , that is, space as it is experienced by the subject through various intentional modes , first of all perception, but also non-perceptual modes, such as trying to remember where something is or how a room is arranged, or thinking about the way to go from A to B (itinerary planning). A general overview of the most important phenomenological accounts made in the literature is proposed, with a focus on the following topics: the relation between bodily skills, and more generally motricity (i.e. the capacity to move), and lived space; the impact of one’s body materiality on one’s experience of space: how possessing a physical body with material properties such as impenetrability and heaviness affects one’s experience of space; the role of the anticipation of possibilities in the enacting and organization of lived space; the role of sociality and the impact of one’s body ‘visibility’, i.e. the fact that one can be perceived by others, in one’s experience of space. The objective of this overview in the context of this book is to get a better understanding of the experience of space in visually impaired people. Based on this phenomenological account, this chapter will, as a result, offer a series of reflections about the peculiarities of the space blind people live in.
    Tags: Action, Counterfactuals, Embodiment, Heidegger, Husserl, Phenomenology, Space perception, Spatial cognition in blind persons, Visual impairment.

  • Dekoninck, Ralph. 2012. “Peinture Des Vanités Ou Peinture Vaniteuse ? L’Invention De La Nature Morte Chez Pieter Aertsen”. Études Épistémè. Revue De Littérature Et De Civilisation (Xvie – Xviiie Siècles) (22) (September 1). doi:10.4000/episteme.363.
    Abstract: A partir de l’œuvre du peintre anversois Pieter Aertsen, souvent présenté comme l’artiste ayant contribué à l’autonomisation de la nature morte au milieu du XVIe siècle, il s’agit d’explorer les frontières mobiles et indécises entre nature morte et vanité, deux genres iconographiques envisagés sous l’angle de leur création comme de leur réception et dans la tension entre éthique et esthétique qui les caractérise. Au-delà des débats sans fin sur les intentions précise de l’artiste balançant entre critique morale et pure délectation, nous cherchons à mettre en évidence la manière dont ses tableaux spiritualisent le réel non pas en vue de le condamner ni de l’exalter, mais pour déplacer l’attention sur son rendu pictural apprécié tant par l’esprit que par les sens, ce qui fait de son œuvre un jalon important dans l’émergence non seulement d’un genre pictural mais plus encore d’un rapport esthétique à l’œuvre d’art.

  • DeRosa, Darleen M., Hantula, Donald A., Kock, Ned, and D'Arcy, John. 2004. “Trust And Leadership In Virtual Teamwork: A Media Naturalness Perspective”. Human Resource Management 43 (2-3) (June 1): 219-232. doi:10.1002/hrm.20016.
    Abstract: Paradoxically, virtual teams are ubiquitous and often successful, contrary to most current communication theories'predictions. Media naturalness theory (Kock, 2001), an evolutionary perspective on communication and its principles of media naturalness, innate schema similarity, and learned schema diversity can be used to understand, study, and manage successful virtual teamwork. In particular, potential problems of trust and leadership in virtual teams are shown to be amenable to solutions rooted explicitly in an evolutionary context. From a media naturalness perspective, geographic distance and technological complexity are secondary to processes of adaptation, as humans remain the most complex and flexible part of the communication system. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Attachment Full Text PDF 126.1 kb (source)

  • Derrida, Jacques. 2009. La Voix Et Le Phénomène. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

  • Derrida, Jacques. 2006. L'animal Que Donc Je Suis. Paris: Galilée.

  • Derrida, Jacques. 1999. La Carte Postale : De Socrate À Freud Et Au-Delà. Paris: Flammarion.

  • Derrida, Jacques. 1993. La Dissémination. Paris: Seuil.

  • Derrida, Jacques. 1991. Donner Le Temps. Paris: Galilée.

  • Derrida, Jacques. 1979. L'écriture Et La Différence. Paris: Seuil.

  • Derrida, Jacques. 1967. De La Grammatologie. Paris: Editions de Minuit.

  • Derrida, Jacques, and Hantai, Simon. 1998. Le Toucher, Jean-Luc Nancy. Paris: Galilée.

  • Derrida, Jacques, and Lawlor, Leonard. 2011. Voice And Phenomenon: Introduction To The Problem Of The Sign In Husserl's Phenomenology. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press.

  • Derrida, Jacques, and Leavey, John P. 1989. Edmund Husserl's Origin Of Geometry, An Introduction. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

  • Descartes, René. 2000. Discours De La Méthode. Paris: Flammarion.
  • Descartes, René, and Forge, Louys De la. 1664. L'homme Et Un Traité De La Formation Du Foetus. Charles Angot.

  • Egbert, Matthew D., Barandiaran, Xabier E., and Di Paolo, Ezequiel A. 2010. “A Minimal Model Of Metabolism-Based Chemotaxis”. Plos Computational Biology 6 (12) (December 2): e1001004. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1001004.
    Abstract: Since the pioneering work by Julius Adler in the 1960's, bacterial chemotaxis has been predominantly studied as metabolism-independent. All available simulation models of bacterial chemotaxis endorse this assumption. Recent studies have shown, however, that many metabolism-dependent chemotactic patterns occur in bacteria. We hereby present the simplest artificial protocell model capable of performing metabolism-based chemotaxis. The model serves as a proof of concept to show how even the simplest metabolism can sustain chemotactic patterns of varying sophistication. It also reproduces a set of phenomena that have recently attracted attention on bacterial chemotaxis and provides insights about alternative mechanisms that could instantiate them. We conclude that relaxing the metabolism-independent assumption provides important theoretical advances, forces us to rethink some established pre-conceptions and may help us better understand unexplored and poorly understood aspects of bacterial chemotaxis.
    Tags: Bacterial Physiological Phenomena, Chemotaxis, Escherichia coli, Flagella, Fumarates, Metabolism, Models, Biological, Salmonella typhimurium, Systems Biology.
    Attachment Full Text 1.3 Mb (source)

  • Ferraris, Maurizio. 2006. T'es Où ? : Ontologie Du Téléphone Mobile. Paris: Albin Michel.

  • Flichy, Patrice. 2004. Une Histoire De La Communication Moderne : Espace Public Et Vie Privée. Paris: La Découverte.

  • Floridi, Luciano, and Sanders, J.W. 2004. “On The Morality Of Artificial Agents”. Minds And Machines 14 (3) (August 1): 349-379. doi:10.1023/B:MIND.0000035461.63578.9d.
    Abstract: Artificial agents (AAs), particularly but not only those in Cyberspace, extend the class of entities that can be involved in moral situations. For they can be conceived of as moral patients (as entities that can be acted upon for good or evil) and also as moral agents (as entities that can perform actions, again for good or evil). In this paper, we clarify the concept of agent and go on to separate the concerns of morality and responsibility of agents (most interestingly for us, of AAs). We conclude that there is substantial and important scope, particularly in Computer Ethics, for the concept of moral agent not necessarily exhibiting free will, mental states or responsibility. This complements the more traditional approach, common at least since Montaigne and Descartes, which considers whether or not (artificial) agents have mental states, feelings, emotions and so on. By focussing directly on ‘mind-less morality’ we are able to avoid that question and also many of the concerns of Artificial Intelligence. A vital component in our approach is the ‘Method of Abstraction’ for analysing the level of abstraction (LoA) at which an agent is considered to act. The LoA is determined by the way in which one chooses to describe, analyse and discuss a system and its context. The ‘Method of Abstraction’ is explained in terms of an ‘interface’ or set of features or observables at a given ‘LoA’. Agenthood, and in particular moral agenthood, depends on a LoA. Our guidelines for agenthood are: interactivity (response to stimulus by change of state), autonomy (ability to change state without stimulus) and adaptability (ability to change the ‘transition rules’ by which state is changed) at a given LoA. Morality may be thought of as a ‘threshold’ defined on the observables in the interface determining the LoA under consideration. An agent is morally good if its actions all respect that threshold; and it is morally evil if some action violates it. That view is particularly informative when the agent constitutes a software or digital system, and the observables are numerical. Finally we review the consequences for Computer Ethics of our approach. In conclusion, this approach facilitates the discussion of the morality of agents not only in Cyberspace but also in the biosphere, where animals can be considered moral agents without their having to display free will, emotions or mental states, and in social contexts, where systems like organizations can play the role of moral agents. The primary ‘cost’ of this facility is the extension of the class of agents and moral agents to embrace AAs.
    Tags: artificial agents, computer ethics, levels of abstraction, moral responsibility.

  • Franck, Didier. 1981. Chair Et Corps. Paris: Editions de Minuit.

  • Froese, Tom. 2017. “Life Is Precious Because It Is Precarious: Individuality, Mortality And The Problem Of Meaning”. In Representation And Reality In Humans, Other Living Organisms And Intelligent Machines, 33-50. Studies In Applied Philosophy, Epistemology And Rational Ethics. Springer, Cham.
    Abstract: Computationalism aspires to provide a comprehensive theory of life and mind. It fails in this task because it lacks the conceptual tools to address the problem of meaning. I argue that a meaningful perspective is enacted by an individual with a potential that is intrinsic to biological existence: death. Life matters to such an individual because it must constantly create the conditions of its own existence, which is unique and irreplaceable. For that individual to actively adapt, rather than to passively disintegrate, expresses a value inherent in its way of life, which is the ultimate source of more refined forms of normativity. This response to the problem of meaning will not satisfy those searching for a functionalist or logical solution, but on this view such a solution will not be forthcoming. As an intuition pump for this alternative perspective I introduce two ancient foreign worldviews that assign a constitutive role to death. Then I trace the emergence of a similar conception of mortality from the cybernetics era to the ongoing development of enactive cognitive science. Finally, I analyze why orthodox computationalism has failed to grasp the role of mortality in this constitutive way.

  • Froese, Tom. 2018. Life Is Precious Because It Is Precarious: Individuality, Mortality, And The Problem Of Meaning. Accessed July24.
    Abstract: Computationalism aspires to provide a comprehensive theory of life and mind. It fails in this task because it lacks the conceptual tools to address the problem of meaning. I argue that a meaningful perspective is enacted by an individual with a

  • Froese, Tom, and Di Paolo, Ezequiel A. 2010. “Modelling Social Interaction As Perceptual Crossing: An Investigation Into The Dynamics Of The Interaction Process”. Connection Science 22 (1): 43-68. doi:10.1080/09540090903197928.
    Abstract: This paper continues efforts to establish a mutually informative dialogue between psychology and evolutionary robotics in order to investigate the dynamics of social interaction. We replicate a recent simulation model of a minimalist experiment in perceptual crossing and confirm the results with significantly simpler artificial agents. A series of psycho-physical tests of their behaviour informs a hypothetical circuit model of their internal operation. However, a detailed study of the actual internal dynamics reveals this circuit model to be unfounded, thereby offering a tale of caution for those hypothesising about sub-personal processes in terms of behavioural observations. In particular, it is shown that the behaviour of the agents largely emerges out of the interaction process itself rather than being an individual achievement alone. We also extend the original simulation model in two novel directions in order to test further the extent to which perceptual crossing between agents can self-organise in a robust manner. These modelling results suggest new hypotheses that can become the basis for further psychological experiments.

  • Froese, Tom, and Di Paolo, Ezequiel A. 2011. “The Enactive Approach”. Pragmatics & Cognition 19 (1) (July 26): 1-36. doi:10.1075/pc.19.1.01fro.
    Abstract: There is a small but growing community of researchers spanning a spectrum of disciplines which are united in rejecting the still dominant computationalist paradigm in favor of the enactive approach. The framework of this approach is centered on a core set of ideas, such as autonomy, sense-making, emergence, embodiment, and experience. These concepts are finding novel applications in a diverse range of areas. One hot topic has been the establishment of an enactive approach to social interaction. The main purpose of this paper is to serve as an advanced entry point into these recent developments. It accomplishes this task in a twofold manner: (i) it provides a succinct synthesis of the most important core ideas and arguments in the theoretical framework of the enactive approach, and (ii) it uses this synthesis to refine the current enactive approach to social interaction. A new operational definition of social interaction is proposed which not only emphasizes the cognitive agency of the individuals and the irreducibility of the interaction process itself, but also the need for jointly co-regulated action. It is suggested that this revised conception of ‘socio-cognitive interaction’ may provide the necessary middle ground from which to understand the confluence of biological and cultural values in personal action.
    Tags: adaptivity, autonomy, cognition, enaction, sense-making, social interaction.

  • Gallagher, Shaun, and Zahavi, Dan. 2012. The Phenomenological Mind. 2nd ed. London ; New York: Routledge.
    Abstract: The Phenomenological Mind is the first book to properly introduce fundamental questions about the mind from the perspective of phenomenology. Key questions and topics covered include: • what is phenomenology? • naturalizing phenomenology and the cognitive sciences • phenomenology and consciousness • consciousness and self-consciousness • time and consciousness • intentionality • the embodied mind • action • knowledge of other minds • situated and extended minds • phenomenology and personal identity. This second edition includes a new preface, and revised and improved chapters. Also included are helpful features such as chapter summaries, guides to further reading, and a glossary, making The Phenomenological Mind an ideal introduction to key concepts in phenomenology, cognitive science and philosophy of mind.

  • Gibson, James J. 1958. “Visually Controlled Locomotion And Visual Orientation In Animals”. British Journal Of Psychology 49 (3): 182–194. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1958.tb00656.x.
    Abstract: A general theory of locomotor behaviour in relation to physical objects is presented. Since the controlling stimulation for such behaviour is mainly optical, this involves novel assumptions about object perception and about what is called ‘visual kinaesthesis’. Evidence for these assumptions is cited. On the basis of this theory it is possible to suppose that animals are visually oriented to the surfaces of their environment, not merely to light as such. In short, it is possible to explain why they seem to have space perception. Implications of this approach for maze-learning are pointed out.
    Attachment Full Text PDF 1.1 Mb (source)
  • Gille, Bertrand. 1978. Histoire Des Techniques : Technique Et Civilisations, Technique Et Sciences. Paris: Gallimard.

  • Gillen, Julia, Ferguson, Rebecca, Peachey, Anna, and Twining, Peter. 2012. “Distributed Cognition In A Virtual World”. Language And Education 26 (2) (March 1): 151-167. doi:10.1080/09500782.2011.642881.
    Abstract: Over a 13-month period, the Schome Park Programme operated the first ‘closed’ (i.e. protected) Teen Second Life 1 project in Europe. The project organised diverse educational events that centred on use of a virtual world and an associated asynchronous forum and wiki. Students and staff together exploited the affordances of the environment to develop skills and enhance community spirit. One popular activity, initiated by students, involved sailing boats around the project's virtual island, a technically challenging task for beginners. This paper studies the records of one of these sailing regattas. Organising and implementing this event involved considerable technical and interactional challenges. We analyse the following: How do people work together, including through the use of (virtual) artefacts, to solve problems? What particular qualities of the literacy practices surrounding the regatta appear to us to involve learning? Simultaneously, we contribute to the development of methodologies for studying learning in virtual worlds by employing a virtual literacy ethnography. Findings include a diversity of creative approaches that are used when solving problems, the significance of adult behaviour in authentically modelling learning and the value of humour in fostering a learning community. The notion of distributed cognition has implications for characterising learning and analytical approaches to analysis.
    Tags: distributed cognition, humour, literacy practices, virtual literacy ethnography, virtual worlds.

  • Gilligan, Carol. 2008. Une Voix Différente : Pour Une Éthique Du Care. Paris: Editions Flammarion.
    Abstract: La morale a-t-elle un sexe ? Les femmes et les hommes ont-ils un sens différent de la moralité ? Une telle question donne la mesure de l'immense débat qu'a suscité le livre de Carol Gilligan, catalyseur des réflexions féministes sur l'éthique du care (imparfaitement traduit par " sollicitude "). Si les analyses en termes de genre sont désormais connues, l'idée de care n'a pas rencontré un aussi large accueil. L'intérêt public grandissant pour les questions d'aide aux personnes vulnérables, et pour les problèmes sociaux et politiques engendrés par la situation inégalitaire des travailleuses/eurs du care et leur circulation au niveau mondial, a permis que les questions théoriques liées au care trouvent une nouvelle pertinence. Il a fallu également que se dissipe le rapport ombrageux du féminisme aux questions morales pour que le care ne soit pas rabattu sur l'idée d'un " service " contraint au profit des plus puissants. Aux Etats-Unis, Une voix différente est le texte le plus lu et le plus cité de la " seconde vague " du féminisme. Il a ouvert un débat politique crucial, entre éthique de la justice et éthique du care, entre une moralité centrée sur l'équité, l'impartialité et l'autonomie et une moralité formulée " d'une voix différente ", reconnue le plus souvent dans l'expérience des femmes, et fondée non sur des principes mais sur une question : comment faire, dans une situation donnée, pour préserver et entretenir les relations humaines qui y sont en jeu ?

  • Goody, Jack, Bazin, Jean, and Bensa, Alban. 1986. La Raison Graphique : La Domestication De La Pensée Sauvage. Paris: Editions de Minuit.

  • Gorini, Alessandra, Gaggioli, Andrea, Vigna, Cinzia, and Riva, Giuseppe. 2008. “A Second Life For Ehealth: Prospects For The Use Of 3-D Virtual Worlds In Clinical Psychology”. Journal Of Medical Internet Research 10 (3) (August 5). doi:10.2196/jmir.1029.
    Abstract: The aim of the present paper is to describe the role played by three-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds in eHealth applications, addressing some potential advantages and issues related to the use of this emerging medium in clinical practice. Due to the enormous diffusion of the World Wide Web (WWW), telepsychology, and telehealth in general, have become accepted and validated methods for the treatment of many different health care concerns. The introduction of the Web 2.0 has facilitated the development of new forms of collaborative interaction between multiple users based on 3-D virtual worlds. This paper describes the development and implementation of a form of tailored immersive e-therapy called p-health whose key factor is interreality, that is, the creation of a hybrid augmented experience merging physical and virtual worlds. We suggest that compared with conventional telehealth applications such as emails, chat, and videoconferences, the interaction between real and 3-D virtual worlds may convey greater feelings of presence, facilitate the clinical communication process, positively influence group processes and cohesiveness in group-based therapies, and foster higher levels of interpersonal trust between therapists and patients. However, challenges related to the potentially addictive nature of such virtual worlds and questions related to privacy and personal safety will also be discussed.

  • Gritz, David. 2004. Lévinas Face Au Beau. Paris: Editions de l'Eclat.

  • Grossman, Vassili. 2005. Vie Et Destin. Paris: Le Livre de Poche.

  • Guelton, Bernard, and Collectif,. 2016. Dispositifs Artistiques Et Interactions Situées. Rennes: PU Rennes.
    Abstract: Désormais omniprésente, la notion de dispositif dans l'art contemporain définit des relations ouvertes, mobiles, reconfigurables selon les contextes et les situations. Originairement constitutif de l'exposition, le dispositif en art contemporain est maintenant susceptible de s'en affranchir totalement. Il intègre les notions d'opérativité et de performativité. L'opérativité ou "caractère d'une action ou série d'actions organisées en vue d'atteindre un but donné" se concentre sur l'utilisateur. Celui-ci, à travers ses actions, sa participation, son implication "perform", exécute, accomplit, joue le dispositif. En ce sens, un principe de performativité régit également de façon conséquente un grand nombre de dispositifs dans les pratiques contemporaines. Cette nouvelle configuration est en étroite corrélation avec une compréhension dynamique de l'espace qui articule la position relative du corps propre avec celle des objets, trajectoires et actions orientées du sujet. Ces principes d'opérativité, de performativité et d'interactions situées forment autant de questions qui redéfinissent une partie importante de la notion de dispositif en art contemporain. Les territoires de l'exposition, des réalités alternées, celui du jeu, se trouvent naturellement convoqués. Comment ces notions sont-elles mises en oeuvre concrètement dans les oeuvres contemporaines ? Quels en sont les constituants, les configurations, les enjeux forment les questions essentielles développées dans cet ouvrage.

  • Gunkel, David J. 2012. The Machine Question: Critical Perspectives On Ai, Robots, And Ethics. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

  • Hall, Edward T. 1966. The Hidden Dimension. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday.
    Abstract: Line drawings and photographs help the author explain the effects of overcrowding and what it can do to people in large groups and as individuals.

  • Hallé, Francis. 2004. Eloge De La Plante : Pour Une Nouvelle Biologie. Paris: Seuil.

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